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“Alfa Romeo Stories”: Fifth Episode – “Gazzelle” and “Pantere” On Italian Roads

Alfa Romeo sports sedans at the service of the law – The fifth episode of the “Alfa Romeo Stories” tells of post-war Italy, from reconstruction to the economic boom.

  • In post-war Italy, Alfa Romeo became both a status symbol and the perfect vehicles for serving the State, kitted out in the livery of the State Police and that of the Carabinieri
  • From the 1900 to the Giulia of today, the Police Forces have used all of the most Alfa Romeo important models
  • In that same period, the brand evolved and modernised itself, embarking on the pathway of mass production while retaining the charm and warmth of its exquisite craftsmanship
  • As sales boomed, the Giulietta sold over 177,000 units and became “Italy’s sweetheart”, while the Giulia, with sales totaling 570,000 units, become an Italian icon

The cars of the State Police Corps
In post-war Italy, Alfa Romeo cars were legendary. They proved that they were faster than any other car, both on the track and on the road. They were powerful and they always won, like good over evil. They had all the right technical and symbolic characteristics for becoming the cars of the State Police Corps.

From the 1950s, Alfa Romeo cars were selected as the official emergency call-out vehicles. They were known as “volanti” and citizens soon got used to seeing them around.  The cars used by the State Police were nicknamed “Panthers” and those of the Carabinieri, or military police, were called “Gazelles”, metaphors that underlined their power and agility.

The very first Panther was an Alfa Romeo 1900, built in 1952, its aggressive silhouette inspired its name. The first Gazelle came into use a few years later. The most famous police car of all was the Giulia Super, but the Police used many other Alfa Romeo models, from the Matta to the Alfasud, Alfa 75, Alfetta, 156 and the current Giulia in use today.

Alfa Romeo is a lifestyle
The history of the brand’s relationship with the Police Force runs parallel with the story of how Alfa Romeo itself evolved over the years. This theme introduces another protagonist of the Alfa Romeo story: Orazio Satta Puliga, born in Turin, with Sardinian ancestry, and a passionate fan of the brand.

He coined the famous phrase: “There are many automotive makes, among which Alfa Romeo stands apart. It is a kind of affliction, the enthusiasm for a means of transport. It’s a lifestyle, a special way of conceiving a motor vehicle”.

Appointed director of design in 1946, Satta Puglia had a hard task ahead of him. Not only did he need to rebuild everything that had been destroyed by the war, but he also had to transform an artisan company into a modern manufacturing force, continuing along the path paved by Ugo Gobbato.

When Satta Puliga started, Alfa Romeo was producing every single mechanical part at its Portello plant, in line with strict criteria of exquisite craftsmanship. He rationalised the process, outsourcing the production of the secondary parts and cutting costs. Meanwhile, he began thinking about creating the new “mass produced” Alfa Romeo models, to be built using the most efficient technical and organisational methodologies around.

1900, the first “Panther”
Satta Puliga’s 1900, which dates from 1950, was the first left-hand drive Alfa Romeo and the first to have a self-supporting body. He abandoned the traditional 6 and 8-cylinder engines for a new 4-cylinder version with aluminium cylinder head and two camshafts with chain control. The engine was powered by a single carburetor, offering brilliant performances and a low taxable horsepower. The 1900 delivered 80hp. It was agile and fast, just as you would expect from an Alfa Romeo, but also very easy to drive. It was designed to target a bigger market with the launch slogan: “The family car that wins races”.

The 1900 was also the first Alfa Romeo vehicle to be produced on an assembly line. A veritable revolution, as the total manufacturing time needed to produce one vehicle was reduced from 240 hours to just 100. This new approach led to an unprecedented success in terms of sales. The 1900 alone sold more than the total Alfa Romeo production of other vehicles up until that time.

This success was also due to careful product cycle management. Several high performance variants were introduced, including the 1900 TI, 1900 C Sprint and Super Sprint, and the 1900 Super, winning important international competitions within their category.

Alfa Romeo continued collaborating with its coach builders. The Berlinetta Aerodinamica Tecnica (BAT) concept car series was launched on 1900 mechanics, created by Bertone and designed by Franco Scaglione. The same engine as the one used in the 1900 was also adopted by the AR51. Better known as the “Matta”, it was a 4×4 launched to replace the post-war off-road vehicles of the Italian Armed Forces.

A Milanese culture vulture and boxing enthusiast
While with the 1900, Alfa Romeo had embarked on the track of serial production, it was with Giulietta that it truly became a large-scale automotive factory. The man in the driving seat of this transformation was Giuseppe Luraghi.

Born in Milan, he had studied at the Bocconi University, where he also practiced the “noble art” of boxing. He had a reputation as an incredible manager, with a long experience at Pirelli under his belt. From 1951 to 1958 he was general manager of Finmeccanica, the holding company that controlled Alfa Romeo. After a short period spent at Lanerossi, he returned in 1960 as president of Alfa Romeo, a position he would hold until 1974.

A keen writer, journalist and publisher, Luraghi also promoted cultural initiatives within the company. In 1953 he appointed Leonardo Sinisgalli, “the poet engineer” to create a magazine that would set up a dialog between humanist culture, technical knowledge and art. The result was entitled “La Civilità delle Macchine” (The Civilisation of Machines), featuring notable Italian writers including Giuseppe Ungaretti and Carlo Emilio Gadda.

On the eve of the “boom”
Upon his arrival at Alfa Romeo, Luraghi revolutionised how the production was structured, calling in designer Rudolf Hruska and Francesco Quaroni to reorganise the industrial processes. He realised that there was a huge opportunity as the brand had exceptional visibility, its sporting victories thrilled millions of people and fueled their dreams. It was time to translate this success into sales. The economic boom was just around the corner and the car was the most coveted possession. For Luraghi, owning an Alfa Romeo had to become the distinguishing mark of those who had truly made it in life.

From elite product to object of desire, the company now pointed all its design and industrial resources in this new direction. The Giulia was the product of this turning point in the history of Alfa Romeo, a car designed to boost sales but at the same time confirm the brand’s technical tradition and sporting vocation.

 

Giulietta, the first Gazelle
The new model takes us back to the link between Alfa Romeo and the Police forces. The first Gazelle of the Carabinieri was none other than a Giulietta, destined for the patrol service. In fact, it took up service already equipped with a radio system for communicating with the police headquarters. In the language of the Italian army, the Gazelle represents the patrol vehicle driver: fast, agile and tough. These characteristics were immediately transferred to the car.

Shorter, narrower and lighter than the 1900, Giulietta took Alfa Romeo into a new segment, for a new public. It offered a modern, streamlined exterior and maximum comfort on the inside, as well as exceptional road holding, quick starting and speed. Its engine (entirely in aluminium) delivered 65hp, racking up a maximum speed of 102.5mph.

At the Turin Motorshow in 1954, Giulietta made its debut in coupé form. The Giulietta Sprint, designed by Bertone, was a low-lying, compact, agile car that became an “instant classic”. It is worth noting that the sporty version was modeled on the standard one, an unconventional and typically Alfa Romeo choice that was proposed again a few years ago by Giulia Quadrifoglio.

Giulietta was a roaring success, becoming so popular that it earned the nickname “Italy’s sweetheart”, selling over 177,000 units.

Giulia, the revolution
Only a revolutionary vehicle could knock Giulietta off the top spot. Satta Puliga knew this only too well. His team (Giuseppe Busso, Ivo Colucci, Livio Nicolis, Giuseppe Scarnati and tester Consalvo Sanesi) set to work, developing a vehicle that was definitely way ahead of its time.

Giulia was one of the first vehicles in the world with a differently-shaped supporting structure. The front and rear parts were designed to be shock-absorbent and the passenger compartment is extremely rigid, to protect its occupants, solutions that would only become compulsory much later.

The 1.6-litre twin cam engine of Giulia was an evolution of the 1.3-litre 4-cylinder one, and it stood out for its sodium-cooled exhaust valves.

The design of Giulia was also revolutionary. Compact, with well-proportioned volumes and a unique style. The low front and truncated rear were inspired by aerodynamics. The launch slogan described the car as “Designed by the wind”. Thanks to the innovative development work carried out in the wind tunnel, the drag coefficient of Giulia was extraordinary for its time: only 0.34.

The vehicle was overwhelmingly successful. It achieved a total of over 570,000 sales, more than triple those of Giulietta, making the Giulia an Italian icon.

Visitors to the Alfa Romeo Museum in Arese will find a room dedicated to Alfa Romeo in the world of film. It hosts many appearances by illustrious vehicles, but Giulia is the undisputed star of the show, featuring in the many “poliziotteschi” films made during that period – which started out as “B-movies”, and later became cult films. In these movies where “cops and robbers” clash, Giulia often stars as both the police car and the getaway vehicle.

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